With the astounding advances of artificial intelligence in recent years, the field of interpretability research has emerged as a fundamental effort to ensure the development of robust AI systems aligned with human values. In this talk, two perspectives on AI interpretability will be presented alongside two case studies in natural language processing. The first study leverages behavioral data and probing tasks to study the perception and encoding of linguistic complexity in humans and language models. The second introduces a user-centric interpretability perspective for neural machine translation to improve post-editing productivity and enjoyability. The need for such application-driven approaches will be emphasized in light of current challenges in faithfully evaluating advances in this field of study.